|History of aikido
· Origins (from old style jujitsu to aikido/judo)
· Sokaku Takeda and Morihei Ueshiba
· Morihei Ueshiba and Kenji Tomiki
· Jigoro Kano and Kenji Tomiki
· The development of aikido competition
In Japan on ancient battlefields where lives were constantly at stake, various fighting styles arose that developed into bujitsu. Amongst these, jujitsu developed into an empty-handed style (that occasionally used weapons) against empty-handed or armed opponents. However, they were feudal times and the techniques were kept secret. Naturally, they were effective against people who did not know the techniques. A great variety of schools arose with no one school knowing all techniques.
After the feudal period there was no longer a need for combat and the emphasis was put on training the mind and body and on self-defence. So bujitsu was transformed into budo where it was possible to develop a pure spirit.
This is where aikido has its origins, in Daitoryu Aikijujitsu founded by Shinra Saburo Yoshimitsu and handed down to the Aizu clan. Morihei Ueshiba, a pious Shintoist, learned Daitoryu Aikijujitsu from Sokaku Takeda as well as Kitoryu, Yagyuryu, Shinkageryu, etc. and formed aikido with strong connections to Shintoism.
After learning Tenjinshinyoryu, Kitoryu and other styles of jujitsu and referring to various others, Jigoro Kano clarified their basic principles and founded Kodokan Judo. Old style jujitsu also had atemi waza (striking techniques) and kansetsu waza (joint techniaues) used when the two participants are separated. These were very effective and dangerous so for the time being judo randori was established only with techniques at a grappling distance. He tried so hard to include atemi waza but ultimately could not find a way. He also said that it would be much more difficult to judge such techniques.
Kenji Tomiki spent many continuous years with these two great men. He had a wide perspective of both aikido and judo and, from a standpoint of budo, clarified their fundamental principles. With the principles of aikido as a basis he established a randori method that included atemi waza and kansetsu waza which Jigoro Kano was unable to do. For more information please refer to Aikido Kyoshitsu by Fumiaki Shishida and Tetsuro Nariyama, published by Taishukan.
Aikido Nyumon by Kisshomaru Ueshiba. Published by Tokyo Shoten
Aikido by Gozo Shioda. Published by Nihon Bungei
Morihei Ueshiba and Aikido. Published in Aiki News
Aikido Nyumon by Kenji Tomiki. Published by Baseball Magazine
Shin Aikido Text by Kenji Tomiki. Published by Tomon Do
Budo Ron by Kenji Tomiki. Published by Taishukan
Goshinjitsu Nyumon by Kenji Tomiki. Published by Saito
Aikido Kyoshitsu by Fumiaki Shishida and Tetsuro Nariyama. Published by Taishukan