1. The harmony of knowledge, emotion and thought is important to people and cultivating people in this way is achieved through education.
Needless to say, the underlying reason for Japan being a leader in the modern industrial world is the accumulation of education since the Meiji period. We have absorbed the West's desire for knowledge and have built today's prosperity after devastation caused by wars and natural disasters.
Building the material foundations of civilisation is of course achieved through the spread of scientific knowledge. Intellectual training is indispensable in present day civilisation. However, making too much of your educational background and careerism can cause problems. So, cultural study and moral education are important. There are the arts and literature but we must not forget physical education and sport in particular.
2. Sport is the pursuit of skill through physical exercise. In the process, stamina and physical strength are increased and above all you can gain experience in dealing with the mental conflict that accompanies matches. The reasons for valuing sport as a means of teaching physical education are not just the promotion and maintenance of good health. The spirit of sport cultivates a scientific mind, the control of feelings and emotions, excellence, justice and friendship.
There are many kinds of sports with different historical origins. Ball games are, for the most part, games in origin. Track-and-field events and water sports had their origins in skills that were used every day in primitive times. People who excelled in these skills were superior to others and often became rich and prospered in their society. A match of hand-to-hand fighting was no exception. With the development of technology and the discovery of health benefits though, the main appeal of sports was socialising and the promotion of personal relationships which is distinct from matches that existed for practical purposes. In other words, the changing times produced a search for a diversity of values.
3. The original aim of bujitsu was to confront and control violence that was not bound by rules in any way. Historically, Japanese bujitsu were generally classified into those that were used when wearing armour on a battlefield and those that were used as self-defence during peaceful times. In early times there was no difference between the two and it was used as a method of fighting. However, we can think of modern budo as being totally separate from warlike intentions.
The characteristics of bujitsu as self-defence became clear from the time of the Edo period. Methods of drawing a sword while kneeling had to be practised and in jujitsu suwari waza (kneeling techniques) were also greatly developed. In other words, the standing and kneeling postures used in everyday life were used as the starting points for all techniques.
The aim was to master the secrets of an empty mind, presence of mind, strong will, etc. It was said that every action in daily life was done with courtesy. By starting and finishing with courtesy in training, the attitude is the same and forms the basic structure that is unique to budo. So, courtesy and budo are consistent.
4. When analysing bujitsu that are classed as hand-to-hand fighting we see methods of offence and defence. In all bujitsu the methods of defending against unrestricted attacks have been investigated thoroughly. Bujitsu are categorised accoring to the weapons used or the techniques applied. In unarmed bujitsu quick movement is a basic requirement to neutralise an opponent's offensive ability. In addition, throwing or pinning an opponent without killing or wounding is the central principle. This loathing of violence was fostered by the religious educations of Confucianism, Buddhism and Shintoism. The aim is to cultivate a moral sense through peace that condemns the violence but not the offencer. This is where we can see the characteristics of jujitsu.
We have the kata system where we can practise unrestricted or dangerous techniques safely. Kata were compiled to deal with unrestricted attacks in every situation. This kind of practice took many years and challenged the idea of fighting without rules.
In the continued peace in the middle of the Edo period violent contests were forbidden and kata was the only method of practice. Consequently, the intensity of practice and concept of winning and losing were lost and kata degenerated. To correct this, fencing with bamboo swords was invented. As for jujitsu, midare geiko (disordered practice) was seen to prevail as well. There is a need and a demand for safe matches based on modern practice methods.
5. We can sort and classify the techniques of the old styles of jujitsu into four groups: nage waza (throwing techniques), katame waza (restraining techniques), atemi waza (striking techniques) and kansetsu waza (joint techniques). The origin of aikido is in aiki-jujitsu which comprises atemi waza and kansetsu waza. Nage waza and katame waza are found in judo which has spread throughout the world. Atemi waza and kansetsu waza are indispensable in modern budo and can also be practised competitively. Competitive practice allows our strengths to be measured objectively against another person and, in particular, to both develop and improve. A worldwide ring of friends will emerge from this and, as a budo of peace, its growth will be limitless. At the same time this clarifies the position of budo in sport.
The development of competition from the old styles of bujitsu is only completed by the cooperation and hard work of people involved - a collective wisdom not based on personal experience, beliefs or faith. However, devoting oneself to only winning matches and ignoring basics breaks away from the fundamental framework of budo. The many elements that make up the basic structure (posture, footwork, etc.) are very important and upon which randori and matches are based.